This is my booktube about the book- Bridget Jones
1) Now that it’s over, what are my first thoughts about this overall year? Are they mostly positive or negative?
1- my first thoughts about this overall year are really positive as I think that we as a class were able to take advantage of our time to learn mostly every class one different poem or story which most of the I found it really interested when we were able to discuss them in class.
2) If positive, what comes to mind specifically? Negative?
2- really, I don’t find nothing negative in the literature classes as I love reading poems and stories all together discussing our opinions and our thoughts about it.
3)What were some of the most interesting discoveries I made while working on Literature? About the subject? About myself? About others?
3- there were not specific discoveries, but i found it interesting when sometimes we found something unusual of supernatural in the poems we read.
4)What were some of my most challenging moments and what made them so?
4-one of the most challenging moments were the term test because I don’t like them as I get nervous. However, in most of the tests I did it well.
What I liked the most about the year was reading the poem of the lost women as I found it really interesting although for many of the class it was really difficult to understand and also Learned a lot of writing skills which I can apply for many of my writings.
Trabajo práctico del régimen Rosista
Juana zufriategui- 3er año
1- Características del modelo político durante la gobernacion de J.M.de Rosas. Relación con la Asamblea de representantes y rol de la Mazorca.
1)Durante su segundo mandato, desde 1835 hasta 1852, Juan Manuel de Rosas decidió seguir 2 objetivos específicos: restituir el orden de la sociedad y alcanzar la paz en el territorio. Para ello, perseguiría a los “unitarios”; quienes no estaban de acuerdo con los principios de su gobierno y sus políticas. Estos fueron desvinculados del ejército como también de la administración del gobierno. Los miembros eclesiásticos con ideas centralistas y liberales también fueron desplazados de sus cargos. Además, Rosas confiscó propiedades para debilitar a sus opositores. La Sala de Representantes promulgaba respetar y proteger al catolicismo. Rosas utilizó la religión para proveer de símbolos y lenguaje a su gobierno así como también para generar la idea de apoyo hacia el régimen Rosista. Así fue que se comenzó a usar la divisa pinzón(una cinta roja). Por otra parte, la Mazorca, que había servido durante la época en la que Rosas no gobernaba para controlar la provincia, ahora vigilaba y castigaba a los desleales y enemigos del régimen. Este conjunto de personas insultaba, burlaba, golpeaba, enviaba a la cárcel o incluso daba muerte a los “unitarios”. La Mazorca constituía un movimiento fundamental en épocas de crisis tanto política como militar. Aparte de eso, se aplicó el sistema de boleta única. Aunque era casi indistinto votar o no, las elecciones permitían confirmar el apoyo que Rosas tenía y así, demostrar que había entendimiento mutuo.
2- ¿Cómo era su vínculo con los sectores populares? (espacios urbanos y rurales)
2) A lo largo del tiempo, historiadores han afirmado que las relaciones entre Juan Manuel de Rosas y los sectores populares habían sido un pilar central de aquella experiencia política. Algunos lograron destacar la capacidad que tenía Rosas de fácilmente lograr movilizar a estos grupos, mientras que otros lo veían como un simple manipulador. Rosas, a lo largo de su gobierno, logró promover las movilizaciones a favor de su causa. Así obtuvo que los trabajadores, antiguos esclavos, gauchos y peones de campo, lo siguieran. Todos estos grupos terminaron participando de manifestaciones públicas en apoyo de la causa de Juan Manuel de Rosas. Sin embargo, el importante lugar que ocupaban los sectores populares en el gobierno de Rosas, generó descontento entre los hombres de la elite que pensaban que ellos debían ocupar un lugar central en la política. Así surgió el grupo conocido como generación del 37 que estaba integrada por universitarios liberales quienes despreciaban el vínculo entre Rosas y los sectores populares.
3- Desarrollo de la cultura durante la gobernación.
3) Rosas utilizó la solicitud de la sala de representantes acerca de respetar y proteger el catolicismo para convertir los ceremoniales de la religión en una especie de usina proveedora de de símbolos y lenguajes para su gobierno. El rosismo adoptó un conjunto de representaciones que imitaban a los rituales religiosos con el objetivo de generar la idea de que toda la sociedad debía apoyar al régimen de manera visible. Para ello, se exigió a todos el uso de una cinta colorada sobre la ropa, llamada “divisa punzó”. En este contexto, las fiestas adquirieron un lugar de relevancia, ya que eran ocasiones de manifestar la adhesión a rosas. Se realizaban tanto en las ciudades como en la campaña y conmemoraban fechas instituidas en el nuevo calendario patrio. Además, algunas fiestas eran empleadas para remarcar simbólicamente las diferencias entre unitarios y federales. Se mantuvieron tambien los tradicionales bailes, tertulias y saraos. En semana santa se realizaba la quema de san judas, al que se vestía de celeste y con las patillas típicas que identificaban a los unitarios. La sociedad en si, conservó las características del período hispánico. A los jefes militares y a los altos funcionarios resistas, así como también a los hacendados, comerciantes, sacerdotes, profesionales y las demás personas sometidas con mayor o menor sinceridad al régimen se los llamaba “gente decente”.
4- ¿Quienes eran los jóvenes de la generación del 1837?
4) Los jóvenes de la generación del 37 era un grupo, integrado por universitarios liberales, que despreciaba tanto las prácticas populares como las relaciones entre Rosas y los sectores inferiores. Además, estos estaban influidos por el ideario romántico europeo.
5- Modelo económico y financiero. ¿Cuál fue el conflicto frente a la ley de Aduana? p115
5) En tiempos de Rosas, Buenos Aires fue la provincia más rica de la Confederación. Principalmente, esto se debió a sus riquezas ganaderas, a la exclusividad de las rentas aduaneras, al privilegio de tener al puerto de entrada de productos extranjeros y al control sobre la navegación de los ríos. Durante esta época, la principal proveedora de riquezas fue la campaña bonaerense y las principales unidades productivas (clave para la prosperidad económica) fueron las estancias, donde se criaba el ganado bovino para la extracción de carne. El proceso de salaciòn de la carne se realizaba en los saladeros. Esta industria era muy rentable, ya que se aprovechaba al máximo la carne. Así, se comenzó a fomentar la comercialización local de la carne de oveja, desplazando a la vacuna. Por otro lado, el rosismo también se esmeraba por la defensa de la propiedad privada. Así, Rosas decidió incrementar el precio de los alquileres de las tierras comprendidas en la ley de enfiteusis a quienes no las habían comprado todavía. Además, se propuso limitar el gasto público y mejorar la recaudación para alcanzar un equilibrio. así, recurrió a la venta de tierras públicas para compensar el déficit. Frente a la poca efectividad, Rosas canceló gran parte del presupuesto a las escuelas, a los hospitales, a la universidad y a la Casa de Expósitos. Otro problema financiero se debió al aumento de los gastos militares. Poco después de sancionar la Ley de Aduana que imposibilitaba el ingreso de diversos productos extranjeros, Rosas debió afrontar un conflictos exterior. En 1938, los franceses decidieron hacer notar su descontento con la ley y con el hecho de que Rosas se haya negado a firmar un tratado concediendo privilegios a los comerciantes de Francia. Así, estos impidieron el comercio en el principal puerto del país (el de BsAs).
6- ¿Quienes realizaron los bloqueos del puerto de Buenos Aires? ¿Cuándo? ¿Cómo? Causas y consecuencias.
- El primer bloqueo del puerto de Buenos Aires surgió poco después de sancionar la Ley de aduana. Esta imposibilitaba el ingreso de diversos productos extranjeros, y debido a ello, Rosas debió afrontar un conflicto de origen extranjero. Debido a esto, los franceses realizaron un bloqueo en el puerto de Buenos Aires y esto tuvieron lugar del 28 de Marzo de 1838 al 29 de Octubre de 1940. La escuadra francesa cerró efectivamente al comercio la ciudad de Bs As y los puertos fluviales. Para lograrlo, los franceses colocaron estratégicamente sus naves en el Río de la Plata para frenar el paso de cualquier otra embarcación que intentara ingresar al puerto o salir de este. Esta situación animó a los opositores de rosas, que entendieron que si el bloqueo continuaba, el gobierno rosista podía ser depuesto. Sin embargo, Rosas no fue depuesto, se mantuvo en su posición y se negó a ceder ante las demandas Francesas. Ademas, los comerciantes Británicos, que resultaban perjudicados por el bloqueo, protestaron ante el gobierno francés. Por este motivo, francia atemorizado por un conflicto con inglaterra, decido levantar el bloqueo.
- El segundo bloqueo ocurrió en 1945. Este surgió debido a que Rosas ordenó bloquear el puerto uruguayo y esto provocó que los negocios comerciales de francia y gran bretaña se vean perjudicados. Por este motivo organizaron una escuadra Anglo-Francesa y bloquearon el puerto de Bs As en septiembre de 1945. Los europeos, al ver que rosas no tomaba ninguna medida, decidieron comerciar por puertos interiores. Pero rosas redobló la apuesta y evitando que los buques comerciales pasan por el río paraná. Por este motivo, el 20 de Noviembre de 1945 se produjo la Batalla de la vuelta de Obligado. Aunque no se impidió que la flota anglo-francesa remontara el río paraná, las importaciones británicas disminuyeron. En 1847 gb levantó el bloqueo y en 1848 lo francia levantó el suyo también. El triunfo de Rosas ante los bloqueos provocó que sus seguidores engrandecieron su figura con el mérito de ser el único caudillo latinoamericano que pudo resistir la presión de las dos potencias más poderosas del mundo.
7 – ¿Quienes se levantan en contra de Rosas? ¿Cuándo, cómo y por qué? Consecuencias
7) Aunque Rosas se mantuvo en el poder desde 1835 hasta 1852, para mantener su hegemonía política, debió afrontar tanto conflictos internacionales como opositores locales que buscaban derrocarlo. Los levantamientos y las insurrecciones se intensificaron entre los años 1839 y 1843. En 1839, se protagonizó el levantamiento de los libres del sur , encabezado por el exgobernador Manuel Vicente Maza e integrado por un grupo de hacendados del pueblo de Dolores. La causa de este levantamiento fue porque este grupo se veía afectado por el bloqueo al puerto de Buenos Aires. Sin embargó, Rosas logró detener la revolución que estalló en Dolores y derrotó a los sublevados. En 1840, Lavalle, junto con el gobernador Marco Avellaneda formaron la Coalición del Norte, enfrentaron a Rosas e invadieron a Entre Ríos, Corrientes, Córdoba. Luego, se sumaron Salta, La rioja y Jujuy. La razón por la que protestaba esta coalición era por los manejos autoritarios de Rosas y pretendía quitarle el manejo de las relaciones exteriores. Sin embargo, los rebeldes fueron derrotados y reprimidos en el campo de batalla. El Litoral, demandó el fin de la prohibición de la navegación por los ríos interiores y sus gobernadores denunciaron el monopolio del puerto de Buenos Aires. Estos, con el apoyo de las tropas santafesinas comenzaron la rebelión en Corrientes. Rosas intervino en Santa Fé, limitando los recursos de los rebeldes y logró controlar el movimiento en 1840.
To da duh, in Memoriam
1) By looking at the picture, what we predict that the title has two different points which makes us understand, what is the story about. First, when it says “To Da-Duh´´ which is meant is was written for someone. Second the fact that is says “In Memoriam´´ is representing that this person is dead.
|What I know||What I want to know||What I learned|
||-we learned that they both have a bond that connected them.
– Also we earned about the lives of both characters.
– Finally, I learned that although they lived in different countries and were raised with other cultures, we can notice that both of them, the grandmother and the writer, have things in common
- Definition: Not letting up or weakening.
-The unrelenting storm continued to destroy the area.
- Definition: Causing fear, apprehension, or dread.
-he was considered by many to be a formidable opponent.
- Definition: Reprimand or censure.
-The teacher reproved the student because he was cheating.
- Definition: eager or quick to argue or fight; aggressively defiant.
-the truculent attitude of farmers to cheaper imports
- Definition: Weakened by old age; feeble; infirm.
– an old, decrepit man
- Definition: To caution, advise, or counsel against something.
-She admonished them to be careful
- Definition: Lasting for an indefinitely long time; enduring.
-the perennial quest for certainty
- Definition: Rigorously self-disciplined and severely moral; ascetic; abstinent.
-The room was big, dark, an austere place.
- Definition: To draw out or lengthen, especially in time; extend the duration of; prolong.
-A complaint having been made to the emperor that he was needlessly protracting hostilities.
- Definition: Something that threatens to cause evil, harm, injury, etc.; a threat.
- He picked up a menacing looking tool.
Questions for thoughts
- As the narrator says it is a memory we know it is in the past.
- The setting of the story is in Barbados a tropical island
- The woman was enslaved for many years. As she was tired of it she still was proud of what her family and her did.
- – Da-duh addresses to the narrator’s mother as “child” as the narrator states that her mother had been reduced to her status as she is shown as a child too. She is Da-duh’s daughter, as she is her mother’s child.
- She prefers boys instead of girls, the reason of this is the British colonization.
- Da-duh when she first meets with the narrator, she gives her a harsh look and decides to draw back. This ended in a kind of conflict as da- duh claimed to her daughter that her granddaughter has a fierce look so she will not triumph in the future as her sister
- At the moment the narrator and her family arrived, the St. Andrews people were shocked and astonished as they have a really different culture. The way they talked and also the way they dressed were totally different from the ways of the people of barbados.
- Da-duh response in a badly way as she got mad because she didn’t like the manner in which the St. andrews people praised the american culture that she didn’t like it at all. She got angry as she thought they were too amazed and astounded in the foreign and modern culture of the americans.
- The grandmother grip the narrators hands tightly as we can notice that she is afraid and feared the machines. They make her feel unsafe so she didn’t trust them. This makes us the readers to understand that Da-duh didn’t like the fact of modernisation and evolution and also the fact that the machines have been acquired too fast by the society
- The narrator regards the cane field as a place of “giant weeds” as she did not appreciated the cane field as her grandmother did. She thought that that are could be used for other things and didn’t saw the nature that her grandmother see.
- Da-duh repeats this phrase as she thinks that in no way living in New York could be better than living in Barbados. As she grew up there and loves the culture, she thinks and tries to convince her granddaughter that Barbados is a better place.
- Da-duh does not like New York at all. Although her granddaughters are from that place, she thinks that Barbados will always be a better place to live. However, at the same time she is curious about New York and how is the life there.
- The narrator is very dramatic when she describes snow, all because she wants to impress Da-Duh. These two characters are always competing about whose country is better.
- The city is Da-Duh great fear.
- Because of her view of society she had, which was the one that white people have more privileges and ruled black people.
- Da-Duh´s roots come from Barbados and Royal Palm represents how wonderful the island is and is a special place for Barbadians.
- Da-duh become angry when the narrator describes the empire state building as the city of New York was seemed to have much more incredible things than she ever expected. Moreover, she also becomes angry as she cannot accept the immensity and greatness of the empire state and how the quality of life have changed so she feels isolated compare to this huge and advanced city.
- At first she feels in a way cheerful as she was triumphant. However, then we can get to know that She started feeling more depressed and sad as she recognized that her grandmother was affected by the fact that she won.
- The narrator decided to go to live alone as when her grandmother dies she feels responsible and blame herself for her death. She feels sorry for the way she treated Da-duh as when she was able to meet her, they have many fights and discussions so she was not able to know her better and missed her.
1)The process where the personality of a character is revealed by the action she or he takes. In the story indirect characterization is shown in the character Da-Duh throughout her personality.
2)The type of narrator the author uses is 1st person narration. This point of view enhance the story as we can get to understand in a clearer way the bond between both, the writer and her grandmother as we know through the writer thoughts their feelings and their rivalry making us to get involved in the reading.
In our opinion, It wouldn’t have been good for her. She would felt bad and disappointed. Da-Duh had never visited the city and the tallest thing she had seen, was in the Royal Palm, where she took the narrator. If she had seen the city she would have felt awful.
BILLENNIUM, BY J. G BALLARD (1961)
- Write a detailed synopsis of the story.
The story is set in the distant future as the title suggests. Twenty million people are squashed into a city putting tremendous pressure on space. The city council has restricted the space that an individual can occupy to 4.5 mere square meters. John Ward and Henry Rossiter are friends who share their tiny living space. They are both employed but find it hard to get by in the crowded city where pedestrian traffic jams can last for days with no one being able to move due to congestion. While knocking about their cubicle, Ward discovers a forgotten room adjacent to their cubicle. They are overwhelmed by this new space, thrilled, as they have never known so much. Together, they buy a Victorian wardrobe which is the only thing of beauty in their drab living area. Soon, Rossiter has the idea of inviting their girlfriends to share the extra room with them. The girls in turn ask their families to move in and take advantage of the space. Ward who had hated the greedy landlords soon becomes a landlord himself, with making money taking precedence over enjoying their new room. In order to make more space, Ward and Rossiter break up the beautiful wardrobe.
- Discuss the theme of over-population and the effect it has on both the way of life and quality of life of the inhabitants of the city.
In the society that exists sometime in the future, overpopulation has swelled to the extent that space seems to have shrunk. All available land is utilized to feed the billions and to live on is rationed to the extent that every individual was forced to live in a cubicle of 4.5 cubic meters. Even, if anyone wanted to move to a bigger place, the spare part of the room was given to another person. This, is added to the fact that the capitalist system provoked on the society the necessity to consume. By having more space they would buy more furniture which would occupy more space. This way, under these circumstances, they would live in oppression anyways.
Ward and Rossiter stumble upon an unoccupied room which is like manna from the wilderness. Instead of using it wisely, they invited their girlfriends who bring in their families too. Ward and Rossiter turn into usurious landlords who find that having extra space under their control makes them powerful. It is also a tool to make money. Soon there are so many in that room that they are worse off than when they had not discovered the extra space.
- The quest for living space has become an overriding obsession with the people of the city. Discuss this theme in detail. Include in your answer some discussion of the ways in which Ballard makes the quest for space dominate the characters’ lives.
At these imaginary future times, what transformed ordinary people into wealthy society was having land. By having more space, it can be rent and, therefore, be able to make money. However, that money would be useless because, due to the congested streets, people was unable to move to go and spend that money.
Taking this into account, when Ward and Rossiter find the abandoned room, and saw that it was having considerable success, Ward divided to become the landowner so he would gain money. Nevertheless, at some point, there are so many people in that room that they are worse off than when they had not discovered the extra space.
- What sort of relationship does Ballard put forward between the inner world of the individual (as represented by Ward and Rossiter) and the outer world in which they live. In other words, how does Ballard conceptualise the effect of surviving daily life in a hopelessly over-crowded city on the consciousness of the individual as demonstrated by the ways in which Ward and Rossiter manage the gift of space in the secret room they discover?
Rossiter and Ward hate the way they had to live, because the world is overpopulated and they don’t have extra living space. Also the hate of Ward that he has to landlords because they are so used to the society and his ambition of power, he became a landlord, something that he didn’t want.
- In the story, Ballard does attempt some sort of explanation of the social, political and economic causes of the extreme over-population that has beset the world. Explain his views as they are presented in the story.
The problem of overpopulation, where the people was having lots of children and also other people wanted to buy a house. An example of this is the law of the government which established that the families with more than 3 children would be given a bigger cubicle to living, this affected the population and then overpopulation affected the place to live.
- Do you agree with his argument? Do you think that current population growth projections indicate that we are likely to end up in the situation portrayed in the story?
I don’t agree with this, maybe it could happen the opposite, people could stop having children because they can’t maintain them or because they don’t want. If this happens it would be a problem to a point where humanity is going to exting.
7.Describe and analyse Ward’s character in some detail. What values does he hold? Why does Ballard make use of this type of character as the main character for this story?
John Ward has a very “old fashioned” mind. He still hasn’t gotten used to the overpopulation so he thinks like us. He hates the society that he lives in and he hates landlords because he thinks they take advantage of people. But Ballard proves to us that we really can’t change the way things are, so Ward ends up becoming a landlord. That’s why Ballard chooses him as a main character, to prove that we will accommodate to survive .
- What role does Rossiter play in the story?
The role of Rossiter in this story is
Rossiter is very different from Ward though they are close friends. He is more aggressive in his approach and persuades Ward to let their girlfriends live into the spare room. This is a disastrous move as the girls decide to bring their families into the secret room. Rossiter is not sensitive to beauty and sacrifices the one thing that symbolizes beauty in their lives, the Victorian wardrobe.
- Describe the role of the female characters in the story.
After Rossiter convinced Ward to let their girlfriends live with them, the girls took advantage of that situation and brought members of their families into the room. They ended up being six people, “Now they are six beds now in line along the wall”.
- Discuss the effects that overpopulation and its attendant ills has had on the nature of family life in relation to Ward’s family as well as Judith and Helen’s family relationships.
In that time and in those circumstances, overpopulation was common in that society. People were trapped in that horrible and hard reality and it was difficult to have that problem solve. “Over a hundred people lived in the top three floors of the old rooming house”, this quote means that there were millions of people and that they lived as they could and where they cold as they didn’t have space. So having a family was just helpful to have more space.
- What does the secret room symbolise in the story?
in our opinion, we think that the secret room symbolizes hope as well as freedom and illusion as they are always looking for more and more space, but instead of having the secret room for them, they fulfill the bedroom with victorian furniture and with a lot of people inside of it. The fact that they found the “secret room” which finally was not secret anymore gives an illusion to them that sometime they would break up with that reality but it was not like that.
- Why do you think Ward and Rossiter are unable to keep the gift of space to themselves? Is Ballard making a comment on how our inner world ultimately reflects the shape of the external world in which we live?
We believe that they couldn’t keep the gift of space for themselves because they were used to the reality of over population, the reality of not having space for themselves, of being uncomfortable and of not having any kind of privacy and letting go the things you have.
- What sort of living arrangement do they eventually end up allowing (and accommodating to) in their secret room?
Rossiter urged ward to let their girlfriends move in, who then, they brought members of their family into the room. They let too much people live with them in the room with the furniture so they ended up without space.
Discuss Ballard’s style and language in the story? Consider also in what ways it is appropriate to the nature of the story being told.
The author uses third person narrative all throughout the story. Words are chosen to highlight the crammed cubicles in which people live out their lives. There is no privacy or comfort. Describing Ward’s cubicle, the narrator says “partition pressed against his knees and he could hardly move”.